One of the most widespread species in Britain and Ireland, also occurring across north-west Europe. It has a preference for moorland and heathland habitats and is very common in upland areas. It can be identified by a combination of pink notched petals, long-pointed patent sepals and plicate, deeply serrate broad terminal leaflets.
Panicles have a broad, compact head of flowers. The rachis and floral branches have numerous prickles and may have some scattered very short-stalked glands. Flowers are about 2.5cm in diameter. Petals are generally broadly elliptical to obovate (up to c.12mm long) and distinctly notched at the apex. Stamens are quite short – when the flower is viewed from the side they do not usually overtop the cone of green styles. The filaments are often pinkish at the base.
Sepals have a long, sharp point or are sometimes leafy-tipped. They are mainly patent, especially when the fruit begins to form.
The terminal leaflet is deeply serrate to somewhat incised, usually distinctly plicate (folded along the secondary veins) and often strongly convex (so that the edges curl up). It is variable in size, up to about 10cm long, but often much smaller. The overall shape is broadly elliptical to almost round. The apex is generally narrowly cuspidate.
Leaflets are greenish-grey felted below.
Stems turn a dark maroon colour and become almost glabrous and shiny. They are angled, often with furrowed sides. The numerous prickles are relatively long, stout and frequently curved. They have red bases and yellow tips.